When at port, ships keep their auxiliary engines running for electricity, resulting in unnecessary emission of pollutants and over $18bn in fuel waste.[1] Estimates su

Fifty-four percent of all ship accidents in 2018 were due to navigational issues such as collisions with other ships, icebergs, infrastructure, or grounding on the sea

Ports are the sites of major pollution, where large vessels continue to run their engines even while at berth, and heavy-lifting work is being performed by diesel-powe

Approximately 10% of a vessel’s energy costs and emissions are due to fouling on the hull.[1] In the U.S.

Sediment builds up in canals and ports, and so this underwater infrastructure needs to be continuously dredged to required depths.

Due to the imbalances in trade flows, 24% of containers that are being shipped around the world are empty.[1,2] Shipping patterns see containers loaded, for example, w

The unwanted accumulation of biological material on ship hulls, known as fouling, can cause an increase in fuel consumption by up to 40%.[1] In the U.S.

It is estimated that there are 25 million shipping containers in active service around the world, with around 6 million in transit, at any time.[1] For over 60 years,

With approximately 3000 ships sailing at any one time, the North Sea is one of the busiest shipping areas in the world.[1] Many of the medium-sized vessels require app